The thirty years of war that took place between 1618 and 1648 had a devastating effect on Berlin. Approximately one-third of its houses were damaged and half of its population was lost.
Berlin became the capital of Germany in 1871 and expanded dramatically in the years to come.
During the 19th century Berlin was radically transformed as a result of the Industrial Revolution. This also had a major impact on its people and economy, turning Berlin into the economic hub of Germany. The development of additional suburbs grew the area and population of Berlin exponentially. In 1871 outlying suburbs were incorporated into Berlin and Berlin became the capital of the newly founded German empire.
During January 1933, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party came into power. The Jewish community was obliterated under Nazi rule. In 1938 after Kristallnach (the night of the broken glass) thousands of Jewish civilians were imprisoned and in 1943 many were shipped to death camps such as Auschwitz.
Parts of Berlin were destroyed during World War Two and approximately 125 000 civilians were killed. After the war a large number of refugees from Eastern provinces entered Berlin.